White Nose Fungus

White Nose Fungus

White Nose Fungus is killing Bats and increasing the number of mosquitoes.

Reprinted from the National Park Service

What Is White-nose Syndrome?

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the fungal disease killing bats in North America. Research indicates the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is likely exotic, introduced from Europe. What started in New York in 2006 has spread to more than half of the United States and five Canadian provinces by August 2016, leaving millions of dead bats in its path. WNS causes high death rates and fast population declines in the species affected by it, and scientists predict some  regional extinction of bat species. These include the once numerous little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and federally listed Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) and northern long-eared bat (Myotis spetentronalis). 

Researchers call the disease “white-nose syndrome” (WNS) because of the visible white fungal growth on infected bats’ muzzles and wings. This cold-loving fungus infects bats during hibernation, when the bats reduce their metabolic rate and lower their body temperature to save energy over winter. Hibernating bats affected by WNS wake up to warm temperatures more frequently, which results in using up fat reserves and then starvation before spring arrives.

The visible signs of WNS show the disease is in a later stage. These bats are already dealing with life-threatening physical function changes, such as acidification and dehydration. Even before the infected bats start to wake more often, infection with the fungus causes bats to use energy twice as fast as healthy bats, according to research from scientists at University of Wisconsin.

How WNS Spreads

The fungus that causes WNS is transmitted a few different ways. Bats can catch the fungus from physical contact with infected bats. Also, bats can pick up the fungus from the surfaces of the cave or mine where they’re hibernating. Humans can spread the fungus from one hibernaculum to another by accidentally carrying the fungus on shoes, clothing, or gear. So it’s really important to not bring clothing or gear into a WNS-free site that was previously used in a WNS-affected site. For this reason, it’s crucial to correctly remove the fungus from your gear and shoes before and after entering caves. Learn how to decontaminate your caving gear.

How WNS Affects Human Health

Current evidence indicates that WNS is not transmissible from bats to humans. Studies have shown that the fungus grows only at cold temperatures (41-68 degrees F) that are much lower than that of the human body. Also, no human infections have ever been documented after exposure to WNS-infected bats or caves.

Although WNS does not cause illness in humans, a small percentage of bats can be infected with other dangerous diseases, such as rabies. Bats infected with either WNS or rabies may exhibit unusual behavior (e.g. erratic flying), which increases the risk for bat-human contact and exposure. Additionally, declines in bat populations can impact human health indirectly since humans depend on bats for important ecosystem services such as controlling pest insects.

If you need help with Humane Wildlife Removal, contact us today.

Keeping Squirrels Out Of Your Attic

Keeping Squirrels Out Of Your Attic

Reprinted from Mother Nature Network

Have you ever tried to outsmart a persistent squirrel?

Countless homeowners have bravely taken on this backyard battle. More often than not, the squirrel leaves the homeowner looking about as hapless as Wile E. Coyote in a war of wits with the Road Runner.

The inquisitive creatures are frustratingly adept at using their acrobatic antics to make seemingly impossibly long leaps onto bird feeders, sneak into newly planted gardens or gnaw, squirm or squeeze their way into attics.

The problem is worse than normal in some regions of the country this year. Parts of the eastern United States, for example, are experiencing what Paul Curtis, an extension wildlife specialist in the Department of Natural Resources at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., calls a population eruption of the gray squirrel.

“The first sign of the problem was when reports of large numbers of road kills started coming in,” Curtis said. He added that he has also received anecdotal reports of large numbers of squirrels in the lower and central Hudson Valley and in Western Vermont, where they’ve wreaked havoc with fall apple crops.

The problem extends down the coast into the Mid-Atlantic states.

George Rambo, a pest management expert and owner of the franchise Critter Control Northern Virginia, says gray squirrels have produced an extra litter this year. Squirrels normally produce two litters a year, one in spring and one in fall. This year they produced a third litter in the summer, Rambo said.

Why so many squirrels?

“The population increase is likely caused by really good acorn crops,” Curtis said.

Rambo concurred, adding that the recent mild winter created an environment that led nut trees to produce bumper crops. “Plenty of food encourages animals to increase their populations, he said.

With more squirrels, there’s an increased risk that they will find their way into attics. At this point, they go from being a backyard nuisance to an indoor hazardous pest.

As they search for entry points, squirrels may damage siding, soffets, fascia boards, chimney flashing and even various types of exhaust fans. Once in the attic, they may build nests where they create a mess with droppings and urine. Even worse, they can chew through wires, creating a potential fire hazard, or destroy furniture or other household contents if they get into living areas.

Homeowners, however, can take heart.

“These population eruptions don’t tend to last long,” Curtis said. “Squirrels have a high mortality rate. Many only live a few months. And, while the past few years have been good for acorns and beechnuts, the forecast is not good for the population eruption to continue.”

Until nature takes care of the problem with a return to more normal winter weather and a drop in nut production, here are some steps homeowners can take to keep squirrels out of their attics.

Check the trees near your house

These tips apply to all trees and branches within jumping distance of the house, which is six to eight feet.

  • Prevent squirrels from climbing the tree by fastening a two-foot band of sheet metal around the trunk six to eight feet above ground.
  • To fasten the sheet metal, wrap wires around the trunk and attach them together with springs. (The springs will allow the sheet metal to spread as the tree grows.)
  • Trim limbs so that the nearest perch is at least six to eight feet from the house.

Inspect the house for attic entry points

Because attics often become too hot in the summer for squirrels to live in, summer is often the best time to block attic entry holes.

  • Look at the exterior of your house for any existing places where squirrels may have already entered the attic. Be aware that entry holes may be smaller than you expect. Rambo says a squirrel can get through an opening about the size of an adult fist.
  • Look for gaps and weak areas such as rot during the exterior inspection.
  • Inspect the interior of the attic. Light shining through from the outside could indicate a point of entry.
  • Seal all possible entrances securely and replace rotting wood, but be aware that squirrels can scratch and chew their way in despite your best efforts.
  • Seal openings at joints of siding and overhanging eaves.
  • Seal openings where utility cables or pipes enter buildings.
  • To seal entrances, securely fasten ¼-inch or ½-inch hardware cloth (available from hardware and box stores) over attic vents, a common entry point. Be sure to use a wire hardware cloth, not a mesh cloth.
  • Extend the hardware cloth 2 inches beyond the hole in all directions. This is a precaution to stop the squirrel from gnawing around it.
  • To secure the hardware cloth, use a staple gun, U nails or regular nails and re-enforce with sheet metal screws.
  • Spray the area with a proven repellant available at garden, hardware, pet or feed stores.
  • You can also use a homemade repellant by combining hot sauce and water at the rate of 1 tablespoon of sauce to 1 quart water.
  • Here’s another recipe for a hot pepper repellant:

    • One chopped yellow onion
    • One chopped Jalapeno pepper
    • One tablespoon of Cayenne pepper
    • Boil all ingredients for 20 minutes in two quarts of water. Let the mixture cool. Strain it through cheesecloth. Apply with a pesticide sprayer or a spray bottle. While this reportedly works against virtually all animals, it is only effective for three to five days.
  • Install caps on chimneys.
  • Check for gaps in the flashing at the chimney base.

Avoid trapping a squirrel in the attic

If you suspect squirrels have already entered your attic and you have found what appears to be their entry point, don’t accidentally block them inside. To determine whether the squirrels are inside or outside the house:

  • Ball up some newspaper and stuff it in the hole.
  • Wait two days. If the newspaper remains intact, there’s a good chance the squirrels are outside. In this case seal the hole.
  • If the newspaper is pushed away, here are some tips on how to capture and remove the intruder:

    • Set a live trap. (These are available from hardware stores.)
    • Cover the trap with a blanket or towel to reduce stress on the animal. Take the trap outside and release the squirrel in your yard near its entry point to the house. (Yes! You read this correctly.)
    • While this may sound self-defeating, relocating the animal to a distant habitat already occupied by other squirrels usually results in the death of the animal. Even if this seems justified because of the frustration the squirrel has caused, other squirrels will simply move into your yard. Squirrels are territorial, and the squirrel you’ve trapped and released that now cannot get back into the securely sealed attic will keep other squirrels out of your yard. However, be aware that they will try to re-enter the attic, which presents another problem if they are successful. Once a squirrel has been trapped once, it will be difficult to trap again, Rambo says,
    • Also, be aware that most states have permit and/or licensing laws and regulations that govern companies that do wildlife work. In Maryland, for instance, Jonathan Kays, an extension specialist for Natural Resources in the Western Maryland Research & Education Center at the University of Maryland Extension, points out that it is illegal to trap and transplant wildlife in Maryland without a permit. And, Rambo adds, not all “exterminators” are permitted or licensed. He suggested that people looking for an exterminator make sure the person they hire is licensed or permitted in nuisance wildlife work and that they show proof of insurance and any warranties that come with the work. In most states, the permit is given to individual technicians and not the company that employs them, he adds.

What if there’s a nest with babies in the attic?
If a squirrel has built a nest in the attic that is not detected until there are babies, there are several options to remove the mother and infants.

Option 1
This requires patience. Wait until the babies have left the nest. This usually tales 12-14 weeks. Then seal the entry hole.

Option 2

This requires several steps but gets the mother to remove the babies herself:

  1. Locate the nest.
  2. Gently use a pole and pull the top off or slide the nest about a foot.
  3. Place a radio set to an all-talk station about 6 feet from the nest.
  4. Toss an ammonia-soaked rag tied with string or fishing line near the nest.
  5. The mother will move the babies, usually very quickly if she has an alternate nest site.

Option 3

This requires a phone call … to an exterminator.

Of course, you can always call an exterminator to begin with rather than go the do-it-yourself route. But, whatever you do, don’t use poison. Beside potential danger to children and pets, the squirrel could die in the attic. And then your problems will get much worse.